In Turkey, Safety Regulations for Civil Aviation have a legal basis through the organization and functions of the Ministry of Transportation, Turkish Civil Aviation Law, the Chicago Convention and the EUROCONTROL Convention.

DHMİ and the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) ensure together the adaptation of rules, regulations and national legislation. They prepare draft regulations/rules by means of a very close consultation with National, International and European bodies, and rules are adapted and/or developed in accordance with the characteristics of the Turkish ATM situation. The DGCA submits these draft regulations/rules to the Cabinet. After the regulations/rules are approved at a ministerial level and signed by Prime Minister they are published in the Official Gazette, thus are they enacted and become a legal obligation.

Through the empowerment of Turkish officials who approved the application of the ESARRs in Turkey, a direct link in legal terms comes into existence in order to facilitate the implementation of the ESARRs into national legislation and aviation rule making. Although all the ESARRs have not yet been imported into national legislation, major work has been completed. The existing national legislation/regulations have been compared to ESARRs, and it was found that their requirements are quite similar to those of the ESARRs', but they are based on ICAO recommendations.

Draft texts are aligned with ESARR 2 on the reporting and analysis of safety occurrences, ESARR 3 on the use of safety management systems by ATM Service Providers, ESARR 4 on the risk assessment and mitigation in ATM, ESARR 5 on ATM services personnel and ESARR 6 on software in ATM systems. The approval process is still continuing, and some will be completed by 2006.

Regarding the Safety-Related Human Resources in ATM, continuous training activities and staff recruitment are ongoing. In 2005, a total of 67 candidate ATCOs were recruited and were undergoing ab-initio training in the DHMİ Training Center in Esenboğa, Ankara. To ensure that the appropriate number of qualified controllers is available at the right time in all work locations, the LAMPS/CHAMP project has been completed. Refreshment training of air traffic controllers is also continuing in the form of seminars and refresher training. Assessment of the correct use of the standard ICAO phraseology and read-back procedures is performed regularly. The investigations of related findings have been suitably debriefed. For system outages or upgrades, adequate arrangements have been made and contingency plans have been

Regarding runway safety, Local Runway Safety Teams have been formed for all airports and a reporting and
dissemination structure to DHMİ and to the DGCA has been formed. Airport related personnel have been kept fully aware of all runway incursion matters. Suitable training in line with EUROCONTROL Action Plan for the prevention of runway incursions and Airport Runway Incident (APRI) guidelines has already been prepared. Local Runway Safety Teams have also been carrying out training and awareness campaigns in accordance with the ICAO Runway Safety Toolkit at all aerodromes.

Investigations of civil aviation incidents and accidents

Turkey is closely following the EC directives on investigations of civil aviation accidents, namely directives 94/56/EC and 2003/42/EC, and carrying out the necessary actions for full alignment.

Voluntary reporting is encouraged as a best practice. Incidents are reported either by pilots or ATCOs (through the local management) to the DHMİ Headquarters. Then a team is formed for each incident to investigate the incident, identify the probable reasons and propose measures to avoid the repetition of such incidents in the future. The results of investigations are reported to DGCA.

Accidents undergo a similar process, except that a commission is established to carry out the necessary investigation. This commission comprises experts from the Civil Aviation Authority, Civil and Military Air Navigation Service Providers, Airlines and any other related organizations according to the required expertise.

The causes of occurrences are analyzed to identify the areas that should and could be improved, and safety
recommendations, interventions and corrective actions are developed to reduce the risk incurred. All the
appropriate safety data is collected and stored.

To improve the implementation and ensure harmonization a Support to States' ANSPs for the Safety Management System Implementation (SASI) Working Session on “Safety Management System” was held on 15-17 March, 2005 in Ankara, and on “Reporting and Investigation on 10-13 October 2005 in İstanbul.

In 2005, a total of 100 incident reports have been investigated, 48 of which were classified as ATM-related.