Keeping in mind that ensuring and maintaining safety is our permanent responsibility, great emphasis is placed in all ATM safety related works, including safety regulations, safety management, human resources and training, equipment and procedures.


The DHMi and the Directorate General of Civil Aviation ensure together the adaptation of rules, regulations and national legislation. They prepare draft regulations/rules by means of a very close consultation with National, International and European bodies, and rules are adapted and/or developed in accordance with the characteristic of the Turkish ATM situation. The DGCA submits these draft regulations/rules to the Cabinet. After they are approved at a Ministerial level and signed by the Prime Minister, they are published in the Official Gazette and become a legal obligation.

To enter all the ESARRs into national legislation, major work has been completed. The existing national legislation/regulations have been compared to ESARRs and it was found out that although they are based on ICAO recommendations, their requirements are quite similar to those of the ESARRs.

Additionally, Turkey is also closely following developments in EU Legislation and all national legislations are being reviewed to ensure the full legislative alignment with the acquis.

As a result of all these harmonisation studies, all necessary modifications have been completed for:
- By-Law on Air Traffic Controller Licensing (SHY 65-01):
- Determination of ATCO licensing principles,
- Modifications according to ESARR 5 and EC Directive on a Community Air Traffic Controller License, namely 2006/23/EC,
- Published in the Official Gazette on 31 January 2007, with the Number 26420, thus becoming enacted.

- By-Law on Reporting and Assessment of ATM Related Safety Occurrences (SHY-65-02):
- Determination of principles in the reporting and assessment of ATM-related occurrences effecting flight safety,
- Modifications according to ESARR2 and the EC directives on the reporting of occurrences in civil aviation, namely directive 2003/42/EC, and on establishing the fundamental principles governing the investigations of civil aviation accidents and incidents, namely directive 94/56/EC,
- Publication in the Official Gazette on 30 January 2007, with the Number 26419, thus becoming enacted.

Approval processes are still continuing for the other ESARRs and it is expected that they will pass into legislation in 2007-2008 and be enacted into law (except ESARR 1 which is in planning stage).

However, since the existing regulations are considered sufficiently similar to the ESARRs, all safety objectives can be successfully achieved until full adoption of ESARRs into Turkish legislation.


A number of activities are currently in progress to support the implementation of a Safety Management System, including the setting up of a Safety Commission responsible for all ATM Safety matters.


Regarding Safety-Related Training of Human Resources at the ATM, training activities and staff recruitment programmes are continuously being carried out. In 2006, a total of 70 candidate ATCOs were recruited and underwent “ab initio” training at the DHMi Training Centre in Esenboga, Ankara.

Refreshment training of Air Traffic Controllers is also continuing in the form of seminars and refresher courses. Assessments of the correct use of the standard ICAO phraseology and read back procedures are performed regularly. Investigations of related findings are suitably debriefed.

To ensure airport safety, local runway safety teams have already been appointed for all airports and are using the current best and standard practices. The DHMi is in the process of transitioning to EAPPRI methodologies and guidelines.

Regarding runway safety, all airport staff has been kept fully aware of all runway incursion matters by means of regular training and awareness campaigns in accordance with ICAO Runway Safety Toolkit. Suitable training in line with the EUROCONTROL Action Plan for the prevention of runway incursions and Airport Runway Incident (APRI) guidelines has already been prepared.


Turkey is taking the necessary measures (safety audits/assessments, replacement of critical systems and development of contingency procedures) to guarantee the safe and correct functioning of the existing system until the SMART system becomes operational. Also, the implementation of safety nets such as Short Term Conflict Alert in all en-route and approach units will significantly improve safety.


Although mandatory reporting has been implemented, voluntary reporting is encouraged. Incidents are reported either by pilots or ATCOs (through the local management) to the DHMi Headquarters.

The DHMi uses reports of safety incidents for internal investigations as well as for education purposes. All necessary measures are taken to ensure a secure reporting environment, essential in facilitating a willingness to report incidents. Additionally, investigation data is legally protected against being used as evidence in law suits.

After receiving an incident report, an investigation team is formed to make the necessary investigation, to identify probable reasons or causes and to propose measures to avoid the repetition of such incidents in the future. The results of investigations are reported to the DGCA.

Accidents undergo a similar process, except that a commission is established by the DGCA to carry out the necessary investigation. This commission comprises experts from the Civil Aviation Authority, Civil and Military Air Navigation Service Providers, Airlines and any other related organisations according to the required expertise.

The causes of occurrences are analysed to identify areas requiring improvement, and safety recommendations, interventions and corrective actions are developed to reduce the risk incurred.

All appropriate safety data is collected and stored. In 2006, a total of 115 incident reports were investigated, and the breakdown of these investigation's results are shown in the graphs.